Pollination and fertilization are two separate processes that are involved in the reproduction of plants.
Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the anther (the male reproductive organ) of a flower to the stigma (the female reproductive organ) of the same or another flower of the same species. This can happen through various means such as wind, water, insects, or animals. Pollination is the first step in the reproduction of plants, and it is necessary for the production of seeds.
Fertilization, on the other hand, is the process by which the sperm from the pollen combines with the egg in the ovule (found in the ovary of the flower) to form a zygote, which will eventually develop into an embryo. This process is also known as syngamy. Once fertilization occurs, the ovule develops into a seed and the ovary develops into a fruit.
In summary, pollination is the transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma, while fertilization is the union of the sperm and egg to form a zygote. Pollination is necessary for fertilization to occur, but fertilization is not necessary for pollination.